An Afghan warrior is defined Mujaheddin (Arabic: مجاهدين), erroneous journalistic transliteration of mujāhidīn (pl. Of mujāhid (مجاهد), indicates the “fighter engaged in jihād” or also, by extension, “patriot”.
In 1826 Dost Mohammed Khan gained control of Kabul. Throughout the 19th century, the clash between the expanding British and Russian empires in what was called the Great Game significantly affected Afghanistan. British concerns about the Russian advance into Central Asia and the growing influence of the Tsarist empire on Persia culminated in two Anglo-Afghan wars. The first (1839-1842) ended with the destruction of an entire British army; it is therefore remembered as an example of the ferocity of armed resistance against any foreign ruler. The Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878-1880) was triggered by the refusal of the Emir Shir Ali to accept the sending of a British mission to Kabul. This conflict brought Emir Abdur Rahman Khan to the Afghan throne. During his reign (1880-1901), the British and the Russians officially established the borders of modern Afghanistan. The British retained effective control over Kabul’s foreign policy. Afghanistan remained neutral during World War I, despite Germany’s encouragement of anti-British sentiments and the rebellion of Afghans along the borders of British India. However, the policy of neutrality pursued by the Afghan king did not enjoy unanimous popularity in the country.
Habibullah, son and successor of Abdur Rahman, was assassinated in 1919, probably by some members of the royal family who opposed British influence. His third son, Amanullah, regained control of Afghanistan’s foreign policy after provoking the third Anglo-Afghan war in the same year with an attack on India. During the ensuing conflict, the British, now weary of the war, gave up control over Afghan foreign policy by stipulating the Treaty of Rawalpindi in August 1919. In memory of this event, Afghans celebrate their Independence Day on August 19.
|Dimensioni||8 × 11 × 3 cm|